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Availability of qualified human capital in sufficient quantity is necessary for the development
and exploitation of science, technology and innovation. Mali, like many other African countries
is striving to grow a requisite pool of skilled science, technology and innovation professionals
but there is a dearth of information on the gender gaps at country level. Therefore, we conducted a gender-based assessment to map the status of science, technology and innovation upon which capacity development at higher education institutions will be premised. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The study looked at the following indicators of the status of science, technology and innovation: human capital, decision making, and research and development, while analysing the policy environment. All the indicators assessed exhibited large gender imbalance in favour of men. Within the agricultural research and training institutions, women are largely under-represented [15%]. Among women researchers, only 8% were active in 2018 compared to 92% for men. Eighteen percent of the staff involved in decision making were women compared to 82% for men. Among the active researchers, very few [6%] accessed science, technology and innovation information, regardless of gender indicating that this is a general issue that must be tackled at all level. To correct the gender gap in the agricultural training and research institutions, a capacity building program based on a countrywide policy of mainstreaming gender with incentives for girls in education, starting from the level of preschool, to primary, secondary, tertiary and high school, to higher education should be considered. Such gender mainstreaming program should be developed, implemented and must be accompanied by a strong and rigorous monitoring and evaluation program, to help inform policies on a regular basis. The gender mainstreaming programs should also provide incentives to girls that promote excellence in the short, medium and long terms.