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Seed yield and quality of three foundation seed models under the formal seed system



In Mali, smallholder farmers are generally not involved in foundation
seed production which is dominated by the conventional public sector based models. These dominant models have so far failed to avail sufficient quantities of foundation seed especially for non-irrigated rice
systems, groundnut, and cowpea. During 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons, field trials were conducted to test three models of foundation seed production, namely: Research Institutions Model – RIM, Seed Companies Model – SCM, and Smallholder Farmers Model – SFM.
Single varieties of five crops vital to food security in Mali (rice, millet, sorghum, groundnut, and cowpea) were used in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The objectives were to identify the best performing models in terms of seed quantity, quality and model efficacy in realizing the yield potential of each crop variety. Significant differences were detected between models and crop performances (P≤0.05). Owing to the trainings and technical backstopping provided to smallholder farmers, the SFM realized the best performance in terms of seed quantity and seed yield; followed by SCM, while the RIM realized the lowest performance. No quality issue was reported for millet, sorghum, and cowpea even for the seed produced by smallholder farmers. Among crops, millet realized the best performance for seed quantity and seed yield and differed significantly from the two legume crops. None of the three models realized the yield potential of the rice variety used in the trials. In addition, there was problem with rice seed quality for all models due to variety contamination. These two factors combined with large seeding rate (60 kg per ha) may explain the unattractiveness of upland rice seed production and the large deficit of certified and foundation seed in Mali. Further studies are needed to shed more light on the challenges observed in the present research.

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Gendered assessment of Science, Technology and Innovation ecosystem Case study of Agricultural Research and Training Institutions in Mali


Availability of qualified human capital in sufficient quantity is necessary for the development
and exploitation of science, technology and innovation. Mali, like many other African countries
is striving to grow a requisite pool of skilled science, technology and innovation professionals
but there is a dearth of information on the gender gaps at country level. Therefore, we conducted a gender-based assessment to map the status of science, technology and innovation upon which capacity development at higher education institutions will be premised. Primary and secondary data were collected and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The study looked at the following indicators of the status of science, technology and innovation: human capital, decision making, and research and development, while analysing the policy environment. All the indicators assessed exhibited large gender imbalance in favour of men. Within the agricultural research and training institutions, women are largely under-represented [15%]. Among women researchers, only 8% were active in 2018 compared to 92% for men. Eighteen percent of the staff involved in decision making were women compared to 82% for men. Among the active researchers, very few [6%] accessed science, technology and innovation information, regardless of gender indicating that this is a general issue that must be tackled at all level. To correct the gender gap in the agricultural training and research institutions, a capacity building program based on a countrywide policy of mainstreaming gender with incentives for girls in education, starting from the level of preschool, to primary, secondary, tertiary and high school, to higher education should be considered. Such gender mainstreaming program should be developed, implemented and must be accompanied by a strong and rigorous monitoring and evaluation program, to help inform policies on a regular basis. The gender mainstreaming programs should also provide incentives to girls that promote excellence in the short, medium and long terms.

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The agricultural value-chain extension model: concepts and applications in Africa


Published by Agro-knowledge Journal
University of Banjaluka, Faculty of Agriculture

This paper describes the Agricultural Value Chain Extension Model after examining different extension models and differentiated terminologies related to evolution of extension models. Agricultural extension is a common denominator for functional value-chain and food security such that agricultural development outcomes are closely linked to agricultural advice provided by extension services.
This model consists of five components of formal training, key clusters, informal training, value chain actors and value chain centre interlinked and connected with forward and backward linkages with overlapping activities among the key clusters. All of these interplay based on the level of funds and resources available
for the activities connecting the components and the pervasiveness of the national agricultural policy where it is deployed. The paper concludes with the application of the Value-Chain Extension Model, by an International Non-Governmental Organization providing extension services along the value chain in Africa.

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Evaluation of the Demand-Driven Agricultural Extension Curricula among Alumni from Selected Universities in Nigeria


Published by Journal of Agricultural Extension
Vol. 25 (2) April, 2021


The study assessed demand-driven agricultural extension curricula by alumni from universities in Nigeria partnering with Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education (SAFE) on such curriculum for at least seven years. Using a cross-sectional research design and cluster sampling technique, 227 alumni were randomly selected from a population of 520. Data were collected through structured questionnaire on socio-economic characteristics, mode of study, areas of specialization operationalized as close-ended questions and rating of programme components on a 5 -point Likert type scale of poor (1) fair (2) good (3) very good (4) excellent (5) with 70 items. Data entry and analysis were done with SPSS 25 using percentages, mean score and multiple regression analysis. Adult education approaches, supervised enterprise projects, students’ supervision, academic advice, information sharing, and participation in research projects had highest positiverating; while fund raising, scholarship, opportunity for enrolling and be part of a professional scientific network, linkage & involvement with
Sasakawa Africa Association (SAA) field activities, laboratories and
variety of subjects offered had highest negative rating. Socio-economic characteristics of alumni were significantly correlated and explained 49 percent of the variation in programme rating. The study recommends that there is need to review the curricula covered in this study and mechanisms for compliance with the Sasakawa methodology should be reinvigorated.

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Report on Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education (SAFE)


The Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education (SAFE) was established in 1991 by Sasakawa Africa
Association (SAA) with the aim of upgrading the knowledge and technical skills of mid-career extension
workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This report summarizes the history and achievements of SAFE since its astablishment.

For copies, please contact Raitt Orr & Associates Ltd in London.

Raitt Orr & Associates Ltd.

The Africa Centre
38 King Street, Covent Garden, London WC2E 8JT, United Kingdom

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